How to:Python

1、django.core.exceptions.ImproperlyConfigured: Requested setting DEBUG, but settings are not configured.

You must either define the environment variable DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE or call settings.configure() before accessing settings.

>>> from django.conf import settings
>>> settings.configure()
>>> from django.test.utils import setup_test_environment
>>> setup_test_environment()

How to setup an SFTP server on CentOS

This tutorial explains how to setup and use an SFTP server on CentOS. Before I start, let me explain what actually SFTP represents and what it is used for. Currently, most people know that we can use normal FTP for transferring, downloading or uploading data from a server to client or client to server. But this protocol is getting hacked easily (if TLS is not used) by anonymous intruders as it the ports are widely open to anyone. Therefore, SFTP has been introduced to as another alternative to meet the main purpose to strengthen the security level.

SFTP stands for SSH File Transfer Protocol or Secure File Transfer Protocol. It uses a separate protocol packaged with SSH to provide a secure connection. 继续阅读

Linux: TMOUT To Automatically Log Users Out

How do I auto Logout my shell user in Linux after certain minutes of inactivity?

Linux bash shell allows you to define the TMOUT environment variable. Set TMOUT to automatically log users out after a period of inactivity. The value is defined in seconds. For example,

export TMOUT=120

export TMOUT=120

The above command will implement a 2 minute idle time-out for the default /bin/bash shell. You can edit your ~/.bash_profile or /etc/profile file as follows to define a 5 minute idle time out:

# set a 5 min timeout policy for bash shell
readonly TMOUT
export TMOUT

# set a 5 min timeout policy for bash shell TMOUT=300 readonly TMOUT export TMOUT

Save and close the file. The readonly command is used to make variables and functions readonly i.e. you user cannot change the value of variable called TMOUT.

How Do I Disable TMOUT?

To disable auto-logout, just set the TMOUT to zero or unset it as follows:
$ export TMOUT=0
$ unset TMOUT
Please note that readonly variable can only be disabled by root in /etc/profile or ~/.bash_profile.

A Note About TCSH SHELL and OpenSSH Server/Client

SSH allows administrators to set an idle timeout interval in /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. TCSH user should use autologout variable. Please see our previous FAQ “Linux / UNIX Automatically Log BASH / TCSH / SSH Users Out After a Period of Inactivity” for more information.

use MySQL on Django with Python3.6

My environment: Windows 10, Python 3.6, Django 1.11.4., PyMySQL 0.6.1, MySQL Server 5.7 on Windows

How to make it work:

  1. Install PyMySQL version 0.7.11 (https://github.com/PyMySQL/PyMySQL/): you can install it either by using pip, i.e. : pip install PyMySQL or by manually downloading the package; there is a good documentation on their website on how to do that.
  2. Open your Django App __init__.py and paste the following lines:
    import pymysql
  3. Now, open settings.py and make sure your DATABASE property looks like this:
       'default': {
           'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
           'NAME': 'mydb',
           'USER': 'dbuser',
           'PASSWORD': 'dbpassword',
           'HOST': 'dbhost',
           'PORT': '3306'
  4. That’s it, you should be able to execute python manage.py syncdb to init your MySQL DB; see the sample output below:
    Creating tables ...
    Creating table django_admin_log
    Creating table auth_permission
    Creating table auth_group_permissions
    Creating table socialaccount_socialtoken
    You just installed Django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
  5. you should be able to execute python manage.py migrate to creates any necessary database tables according
    to the database settings in your mysite/settings.py file and the database migrations shipped with the app; see the sample output below:

    Operations to perform:
      Apply all migrations: admin, auth, contenttypes, sessions
    Running migrations:
      Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
      Applying auth.0001_initial... OK
      Applying admin.0001_initial... OK
      Applying admin.0002_logentry_remove_auto_add... OK
      Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK
      Applying auth.0002_alter_permission_name_max_length... OK
      Applying auth.0003_alter_user_email_max_length... OK
      Applying auth.0004_alter_user_username_opts... OK
      Applying auth.0005_alter_user_last_login_null... OK
      Applying auth.0006_require_contenttypes_0002... OK
      Applying auth.0007_alter_validators_add_error_messages... OK
      Applying auth.0008_alter_user_username_max_length... OK
      Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK




<Directory “/var/www/upload”>
<FilesMatch “.php”>
Order Allow,Deny
Deny from all

但是linux就不同了,大家都是知道的linux操作系统是区分大小写的,这里如果换成大写后缀名*.phP一类就pass了 继续阅读

File System Redirector

The %windir%\System32 directory is reserved for 64-bit applications. Most DLL file names were not changed when 64-bit versions of the DLLs were created, so 32-bit versions of the DLLs are stored in a different directory. WOW64 hides this difference by using a file system redirector.

In most cases, whenever a 32-bit application attempts to access %windir%\System32, the access is redirected to %windir%\SysWOW64. Access to %windir%\lastgood\system32 is redirected to %windir%\lastgood\SysWOW64. Access to %windir%\regedit.exe is redirected to %windir%\SysWOW64\regedit.exe.

If the access causes the system to display the UAC prompt, redirection does not occur. Instead, the 64-bit version of the requested file is launched. To prevent this problem, either specify the SysWOW64 directory to avoid redirection and ensure access to the 32-bit version of the file, or run the 32-bit application with administrator privileges so the UAC prompt is not displayed. 继续阅读

ubuntu修改mysql 5.7数据存储目录datadir

环境:Ubuntu 16.04、mysql5.7

这里提一下apparnor 是控制访问权限的,而mysql依赖它,所以不单单是改完mysql配置文件的内容,同样的需要修改apparmor的相应的配置文件。
mkdir /database/mysql
chmod 700 /database/mysql
chowd mysql:mysq /database/mysql
2.将以前的数据库复制到新的存储目录 (这样避免了再次初始化,并且数据还在)
cp -av /var/lib/mysql/* /database/mysql
3.删除日志 (不删除会报错)
rm -rf /database/mysql/ib_logfile0
rm -rf /database/mysql/ib_logfile1


Auditd – Linux 服务器安全审计工具


我们知道Linux系统上有一个叫 auditd 的审计工具。这个工具在大多数Linux操作系统中是默认安装的。那么auditd 是什么?该如何使用呢?下面我们开始介绍。






  • 抓取所有经过eth1,目的或源地址是192.168.1.1的网络数据
tcpdump -i eth1 host
  • 指定源地址
tcpdump -i eth1 src host
  • 指定目的地址
tcpdump -i eth1 dst host



Python fabric远程自动部署简介



本文主要介绍CentOS 6.3上使用fabric进行自动部署的基本方法。 继续阅读