DNS for Rocket Scientists - Change Log

The changes made with each revision of this document

Version 1.36 27th August 2008

  1. Chapter 2 - Minor corrections to wording in order to, hopefully, improve the explanations. Update of DNSSEC specification references. Correction of minor typos.
  2. Chapter 5 - Updated to include BIND 9.4.x, FreeBSD 6.x and support of Windows XP/2003.
  3. Chapter 7 - server clause - correction or link errors, addition of keys statement
  4. Chapter 7 - controls clause - minor typos
  5. Chapter 7 - servers clause - minor typos
  6. Chapter 7 - zone clause - minor typos
  7. Chapter 7 - ixfr-from-differences - minor typos
  8. Chapter 8 - Correction of spelling errors.
  9. Chapter 8 - SOA incorrect RFC reference - corrected reference is RFC 2142 (was 2412).
  10. Chapter 8 - SRV RR. Correction ot minor typos and some rewording. Addition of a new example and some notes on its use in PKIX (RFC 4386 and 4210).
  11. Chapter 8 - NS RRs - minor corrections and clarification of two name servers for public domains, private domains may use less.
  12. Chapter 8 - A RRs - additional note on relationship between host name and A RRs.
  13. Chapter 8 - CNAME RRs - gramatical error.
  14. Chapter 9 - wwww.example.com and example.com - minor typos
  15. Chapter 9 - serial number fix - error in example serial number and incorrectly written formula.
  16. Chapter 9 - SPF - exp example used TXT twice rather than TXT and SPF RRs and incorrectly showed ext rather than exp as the keyword.
  17. Chapter 9 - subdomains - addition of explanatory material and linsk when using blank and @ substitution.
  18. Appendix A - Addition examples over blank substitution
  19. Appendix C - Updated reference to DNRD moved to http://dnrd.sourceforge.net/.
  20. Appendix D - Update to RFC references

Version 1.35 1st December 2007

  1. Chapter 5 - correction of title to Berkeley Internet Name Domain
  2. Chapter 7 - correction of broken links
  3. Chapter 7 - addition of link from address_match_list to sortlist
  4. Chapter 8 - correction of RR type value for DS, SPF and NAPTR
  5. Chapter 8 - correction of broken links
  6. Chapter 8 - CNAME - additional examples
  7. Chapter 9 - Delegate subdomain - error in supposedly helpful comment renders it more confusing.
  8. Chapter 9 - SPF - incorrectly showed ipv4 in the ipv6/cidr example
  9. Chapter 10 - correction of broken links
  10. Appendix A - correction of broken links
  11. Appendix D - missing RFCs.

Version 1.34 July 5th 2007

  1. Chapter 4 - Windows Installation - Bad news: BIND is no longer (post 9.3.2) supported on NT4.0. Good News: Windows XP/2003 is now supported.
  2. Chapter 6 - DNS Types - layout changes and additional notes on mixed configurations and authoritative only servers.
  3. Chapter 8 - Addition of the SPF RR type
  4. Chapter 8 - Addition of a placeholder comment for DKIM's use of the TXT RR.
  5. Chapter 9 - HOWTO Close DNS (and protect against DoS and Cache Poisoning)
  6. Chapter 9 - HOWTO Define an SPF Record - correction of one remaining {} error, and the addition of the SPF RR type supported by BIND 9.4.
  7. Chapter 10 - addition of short overview of tools and utilities provided. Minor formatting changes.
  8. Chapter 10 - dig - minor layout error corrections.
  9. Appendix D - update the reflect the latest DNS RFCs.

Version 1.33 9th May 2007

  1. Chapter 3 - Reverse Map Delegation - addition of $TTL directives and explanation of character set usage. Change to example.com
  • Chapter 3 - Reverse Map Delegation - addition of $TTL directives and explanation of character set usage. Change to example.com
  • Chapter 7 - sortlist statement - error in example.
  • Chapter 8 - $ORIGIN directive - minor corrections to text.
  • Chapter 9 - Reverse Delegation HOWTO - addition of a cross reference to the BIND specific $GENERATE directive and minor corrections to text.
  • Chapter 9 - HOWTO Configure Subdomain - missing dot on the $ORIGIN directive.
  • Chapter 9 - HOWTO Define an SPF Record - incorrectly used parenthesis as a delimter - should be braces {}.
  • Appendix A - 'When to use the DOT' - Minor reworking and clarifications. Use of example.com in fragments.
  • Appendix A - 'How Resolvers work' - Minor reworking and clarifications.
  • Appendix A - 'Referrals' - Minor text rework.
  • Appendix A - 'The DOT in a zone file' - Minor text rework and expanded examples to clarify FQDN.
  • Appendix A - $ORIGIN and @ substitution - Minor text rework and exanded examples to illustrate blank name (label) substitution. Typo in fragment example.
  • Appendix A - BIND Statement layout variations. Change to example.com.
  • Appendix C - Resources update.
  • Version 1.32 July 7th 2006

    1. Chapter 1 - Terminology and Conventions. Correction of typos and some minor reworking for clarity. Addition of SLDs
    2. Chapter 2 - Second 2.3.2 reversed order or items (2) and (3).
    3. Chapter 6 - IPv6 reverse map - correction of reverse map domain to IP6.ARPA (incorrectly defined as IPV6.ARPA)
    4. Chapter 7 - query-source and query-source-v6 - incorrect link
    5. Chapter 7 - acl example - incorrect use of also-notify, replaced with allow-notify
    6. Chapter 7 - allow-transfer - change of text explanation to cover denial of service attacks
    7. Chapter 9 - reverse map delegation - correction to IN-ADDR.ARPA in first sample (incorrectly defined as IN_ADDR.ARPA)
    8. Chapter 9 - reverse map delegation - minor corrections, addition of PTR RR to the ISP file and change of wording.
    9. Chapter 10 - Addition of section on DNSBL's

    Version 1.31 11th November 2005

    1. Chapter 4 - removal of file statement in zone specific forward example (4.4) - not required

    Version 1.30 November 4th 2005

    1. Chapter 4 - Closing of Open DNS servers note
    2. Chapter 6 - Closing of Open DNS servers note and configuration changes

    Version 1.29 15th October 2005

    1. Chapter 8 - SOA additional examples and correction of link errors.
    2. Chapter 8 - Addition of placeholders for KEY, DNSKEY, DS, RRSIG and NSEC RRs with a brief description of functionality and purpose only.
    3. Chapter 9 - Additional of HOWTO Fix SOA RR serial numbers.
    4. Chapter 10 - separation of utilities into separate pages.
    5. Chapter 8 - Addition of placeholders for dnsssec-keygen and dnssec-signzone with a brief description of functionality and purpose only.

    Version 1.28 10th August 2005

    1. General - progressive change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. General - progressive change to use use $TTL and $ORIGIN in all examples
    3. General - BIND 9.3.0 update.
    4. Chapter 5 - FreeBSD install change base install make parameter.
    5. Chapter 8 - CNAME update.
    6. Chapter 8 - $GENERATE directive added.
    7. Appendix A - Correction of error in CIDR.
    8. Appendix C - Update to resources.
    9. Appendix D - Add RFC 3425, RFC4033, RFC 4034 and RFC 4035

    Version 1.27 March 16th 2005 (really twice in one day)

    1. General - progressive change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. General - progressive change to use use $TTL and $ORIGIN in all examples
    3. General - BIND 9.3.0 update.
    4. General - Addition of size value to logging statement to control file.
    5. Chapter 6 - change of file naming convention to use master and slave not pri and sec to minimise confusion.
    6. Chapter 6 - change master server named.conf to use allow-transfer {none;}; in global clause and explicitly allow-transfer to slave in master only as a more generally useful for multi-master configurations.
    7. Chapter 7 - allow-transfer - policy example
    8. Chapter 9 - domain delegations - add explicit use of allow-transfer.

    Version 1.26 March 16th 2005

    1. General - progressive change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. General - progressive change to use use $TTL and $ORIGIN in all examples
    3. General - BIND 9.3.0 update
    4. Chapter 8 - Reformat Index Page
    5. Chapter 8 - A RR minor corrections
    6. Chapter 8 - AAAA RR (IPv6) description.
    7. Chapter 8 - PTR RR Add Ipv6 description and example.
    8. Chapter 8 - SVR RR corrections to second example.
    9. Chapter 15 - correction to text of Answer, Authoritative and Additional Section generic format.
    10. Chapter 15 - Update to responses for EDNS0.
    11. Appendix D - Add RFC 2230, RFC 2538, RFC 2539, RFC 2541, RFC 2931, RFC 3548, RFC 3655, RFC 3658, RFC 3757, RFC 3833, RFC 3845, RFC 3958, RFC 4025. DNSSEC.bis draft RFCs

    Version 1.25 March 6th 2005

    1. General - progressive change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. General - progressive change to use use $TTL and $ORIGIN in all examples
    3. General - BIND 9.3.0 update
    4. Chapter 1 - Explanation of clause and statement terminology in named.conf.
    5. Chapter 5 - FC2 install - error in dependency - nscd not ncsd.
    6. Chapter 7 - change to use clause and statement terminology.
    7. Chapter 7 - ACL clause - error corrections to braces
    8. Chapter 7 - Logging clause - updates and rewrites
    9. Chapter 7 - Zone clause, type and masters statements updated for BIND 9.3.0
    10. Chapter 7 - Zone - add check-names statement
    11. Chapter 7 - Zone add delegation-only type and statement
    12. Chapter 7 - Options - status updated for BIND 9.3.0
    13. Chapter 7 - Classification of statements
    14. Chapter 7 - add avoid-v4-udp-ports and avoid-v6-udp-ports statements.
    15. Chapter 7 - add alt-transfer-source and alt-transfer-source-v6 statements.
    16. Chapter 7 - add dialup statement.
    17. Chapter 7 - correction to notify-source and notify-source-v6.
    18. Chapter 7 - Add use-alt-transfer-source statement.
    19. Chapter 7 - correction and updates to listen-on-v6, max-cache-size statements.
    20. Chapter 7 - add bogus statement.
    21. Chapter 7 - Queries Category - error in auth-nxdomain - wrong title.
    22. Chapter 7 - Transfers Category - allow-notify - correct wording.
    23. Appendix C - Addition of Constrict Python interface libraries.
    24. Appendix A - Update name and label rules.

    Version 1.24 11th February 2005

    1. General - progressive change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. General - progressive change to use use $TTL and $ORIGIN in all examples
    3. Chapter 8 - Corrections to errors in $ORIGIN directive and change to use example.com.
    4. Chapter 8 - Corrections to errors in A RR and change to use example.com.
    5. Chapter 8 - Extended discussion of CNAME RR
    6. Chapter 8 - Minor changes to MX RR
    7. Chapter 8 - NS RR additional of glue record explanation and changed to use example.com.
    8. Chapter 8 - SOA RR minor clarifications to serial number field and changed to use example.com.
    9. Chapter 8 - SRV RR updated and changed to use example.com.
    10. Chapter 9 - Update to SPF information.
    11. Appendix A - Referral update.
    12. Appendix A - Addition of RFC2181 reference in TTL value.

    Version 1.23 4th February 2005

    1. General - change to use hostmaster.example.com. in SOA RRs as per RFC 1912
    2. Chapter 7 - rrset-order option available > BIND 9.2.4. Example added.
    3. Chapter 8 - SRV RR missing dot in example.
    4. Chapter 9 - SPF minor corrections, update current SPF draft spec
    5. Chapter 9 - load-balancing significant upgrades and corrections following experimentation
    6. Chapter 9 - changes to correct minor errors in sub-domain delegation
    7. Chapter 9 - mail fail-over changed to use an external mail server (in an external domain)
    8. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 1794.

    Version 1.22 January 23rd 2005

    1. Chapter 5 - Addition of Fedora Core 2 (Linux) to installation
    2. Chapter 5 - Addition of Windows 2000 Server to installation and correction of some errors
    3. Chapter 5 - Addition of BIND Command Line Arguments
    4. Chapter 8 - Addition of IPv6 AAAA RR.
    5. Chapter 8 - Note to A6 and DNAME RRs to indicate current status (EXPERIMENTAL) and restore AAAA and PTR RRs to operational usage for IPv6.
    6. Chapter 8 - Addition of IPv6 data to PTR RR.
    7. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 2694.
    8. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 3363.
    9. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 3596.
    10. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 1886.

    Version 1.21 January 12th 2005

    1. Chapter 1 - Terminology - some corrections and clarifications to FQDN, host name and addition of unqualified domain name.
    2. Chapter 5 - Install on FreeBSD 4.x and 5.x
    3. Chapter 5 - Install BIND on Windows NT 4.0
    4. Chapter 6 - Updated root.servers file
    5. Chapter 6 - minor corrections to named.conf files
    6. Chapter 6 - mydomain.html updated to use example.com
    7. Chapter 6 - mydomain-internal.html updated to use example.com and corrected error with CNAME on an MX RR
    8. Chapter 6 - mydomain-external.html updated to use example.com
    9. Chapter 6 - reverse-map.html updated to use example.com and clarification of what records can appear in the reverse map file.
    10. Chapter 6 - reverse-map-reverse.html updated to use example.com and clarification of what records can appear in the reverse map file.
    11. Chapter 7 - pid-file options parameter requires a quoted string.
    12. Chapter 7 - directory options parameter requires a quoted string.
    13. Chapter 7 - zone type - clarification and correction of the use of expiry and refresh SOA values.
    14. Chapter 15 - Correction of error in definition of QR bit of message header.
    15. Appendix D - RFC 2874 change of status from PROPOSED STANDARD to EXPERIMENTAL.

    Version 1.20 November 16th 2004

    1. Chapter 8 - Correction to $TTL directive - standarized in RFC 2308)
    2. Chapter 8 - $ORIGIN directive updated to use example.com
    3. Chapter 8 - NS RR updated to use example.com
    4. Chapter 8 - CNAME RR updated to use example.com and some additional clarification.
    5. Chapter 8 - SOA RR - addition of class field description, clarification of use of some fields
    6. Chapter 9 - Updated suppress.html to remove CNAME and clarify a couple of points
    7. Appendix A - Correction to $TTL (defined in RFC 2308) updated to use example.com. Addition comments and alignment with RFC 1912 recommendations.
    8. Appendix D - Addition of RFC 2308

    Version 1.19 November 6th 2004

    1. Chapter 7 - Correction to transfers-out statement (was transfer-out)
    2. Chapter 8 - Error in SOA examples for min time
    3. Chapter 9 - Updated suppress.html to use Apache ServerAlias directive.

    Version 1.18 November 1st 2004

    1. Chapter 1 - Terminology - SLD
    2. Chapter 2 - introduction of SLD term and FQDN
    3. Chapter 2 - change mydomain to example in all examples!
    4. Chapter 2 - removal of references to root-servers and TLDs servers running concurrently - not true since late 2003.
    5. Chapter 2 - minor reformatting to Recursive and Iterative query sequences
    6. Chapter 4 - change mydomain to example in all examples!
    7. Chapter 4 - clarification of when a query response is Authoritative.
    8. Appendix A - clarification of resolver functionality and definition of 'stub' resolver
    9. Appendix A - definition of referral

    Version 1.17 October 17th 2004

    1. Chapter 6 - error in master named.conf incorrectly specified transfer-allow (corrected to allow-transfer)
    2. Chapter 7 - incorrect syntax in allow-transfer example (xfer.html)
    3. Chapter 10 - addition of nslookup and dig tools

    Version 0.1.16 September 13th 2004

    1. Chapter 8 - MX RR addition of subdomain configuration
    2. Chapter 8 - Addition of Zone file directives
    3. Chapter 9 - HOWTO Configure Virtual subdomains - addition of an MX record
    4. Chapter 9 - HOWTO Configure Delegated subdomains - addition of an MX record

    Version 0.1.15 July 19th 2004

    1. Contents section - chapter 15 - errors
    2. Chapter 9 - HOWTO Configure an SPF record
    3. Chapter 8 - Cross Reference in TXT record to SPF HOWTO
    4. Chapter 8 - A RR minor clarification if name field left BLANK

    Version 0.1.14 June 2004

    1. Chapter 8 - Removed reference to Binary format in resource records - changed to Generic
    2. Chapter 8 - changed SOA record examples to reflect values defined in RFC 1912
    3. Appendix A - Addition of CIDR Summary
    4. Appendix A - Addition of Name/Label valid character
    5. Appendix A - Clarified TTL value range per RFC 2181.

    Version 0.1.13 June 2004

    1. Chapter 15 - DNS Query/Response Network Message Formats

    Version 0.1.12 15th May 2004

    1. Chapter 2 - added section numbering.
    2. Chapter 2 - addition of Zone Update Section (2.2.7) (includes AXFR, IXFR, NOTIFY and Dynamic Updates.
    3. Chapter 2 - added DNS security overview.
    4. Chapter 3 - added section numbering and trivial corrections.
    5. Chapter 4 - corrected and added section numbering.
    6. Chapter 4 - explain term 'Primary master'.
    7. Chapter 5 - added section numbering
    8. Chapter 7 - addition of server statement
    9. Chapter 7 - addition of transfers clause
    10. Chapter 7 - correction of transfers-per-ns clause (was transfer-per-ns)
    11. Chapter 8 - SOA record addition of 'Primary Master' explanation.
    12. Chapter 13 - Added placemarker for DNS Security.
    13. Appendix D - addition of RFC 1995, 2336, 3445.

    Version 0.1.11

    1. Chapter 7 - deleted hostname option statement - no references available.
    2. Chapter 7 - allow-update-forwarding option statement correction.
    3. Chapter 7 - minimal-responses option statement added.
    4. Chapter 7 - provide-ixfr option statement added.
    5. Chapter 7 - request-ixfr option statement added.
    6. Chapter 7 - allow-update option statement added.
    7. Chapter 7 - tcp-clients option statement added.
    8. Chapter 7 - recursive-clients option statement added.
    9. Chapter 7 - Clarification of 'include' statement not same as $INCLUDE directive.
    10. Chapter 8 - Correction of error in first example file.
    11. Chapter 8 - $INCLUDE format definition.

    Version 0.1.10

    1. Chapter 8 - MX record examples incorrectly used NS not MX.
    2. Chapter 8 - NS clarified 'name' formats.
    3. Chapter 8 - SOA added more examples - missing dot in examples.

    Version 0.1.9

    1. Chapter 1 - minor typos.
    2. Chapter 4 - Minor typos.
    3. Chapter 6 - addition of allow-notify and allow-transfer options in most files to minimise cache poisoning, maximise performance or maintain privacy.
    4. Chapter 7 - addition of version, pid-file and port options.

    Version 0.1.8

    1. Chapter 7 - view.html minor typo
    2. Chapter 9 - round robin - update of section and correction of links.
    3. Appendix C - Minor updates to alternate software section.

    Version 0.1.7

    1. Chapter 6 - example configurations added
    2. Chapter 4 - minor corrections

    Version 0.1.6

    1. Change of title to DNS for Rocket Scientists
    2. ch8 - changed intro section to cover zone file general layout first.
    3. updated Chapter 1 - objectives.
    4. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - acl statement
    5. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - options statements
    6. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - include statement
    7. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - logging statement
    8. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - required zone files
    9. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - view statement
    10. Chapter 7 (named.conf) - zone statement
    11. Chapter 10 placeholder for troubleshooting
    12. Chapter 11 placeholder for error messages
    13. Chapter 12 placeholder for APIs
    14. APP A: - resolver description
    15. APP A: - BIND named.conf layouts
    16. APP D: - updated RFC list

    Version 0.1.5

    1. ch2 - added notes on reverse mapping named.conf changes.
    2. ch8 - added PTR record description
    3. ch8 - $ORIGIN Definition
    4. ch8 - $TTL Definition
    5. APP C: - updated resource sites
    6. APP D: - updated RFC list

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    Page modified: September 03 2008.

    Pro DNS and BIND by Ron Aitchison

    Contents

    tech info
    guides home
    dns articles
    intro
    contents
    1 objectives
    big picture
    2 concepts
    3 reverse map
    4 dns types
    quickstart
    5 install bind
    6 samples
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    7 named.conf
    8 dns records
    operations
    9 howtos
    10 tools
    11 trouble
    programming
    12 bind api's
    security
    13 dns security
    bits & bytes
    15 messages
    resources
    notes & tips
    registration FAQ
    dns resources
    dns rfc's
    change log

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